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Opinions of Thursday, 14 May 2015

Columnist: Lokongo, Antoine R.

Kwame Nkrumah: Nkrumahism And Francophone Africa 2

Author: Antoine R. Lokongo.

We reproduce his article “AFRICAN NATIONS CAN NO LONGER AFFORD TO BE FRANCE’S GARDEN” here. It reads:

“The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) was recently the site of choice for the 14th Summit Meeting of La Francophonie Heads of State and Governments held in Kinshasa in mid-October.

"La Francophonie" stands for a wide network of institutions and projects aimed at developing the political, economic and cultural links between France and its former colonies, through training support, academic and students exchanges, promotion of the French language, cultural exhibitions, subsidies and so on.

So why the choice of the DRC at this particular time? France fears losing a big francophone country should it veer toward the British-led Commonwealth camp, and the arrival of China in the DRC sends shivers down the West's spine.

The DRC's importance also stems from its geopolitical and strategic position at the heart of the continent; its fertile land, benign climate, natural tourist attractions and, particularly, its mineral resources.

The West in general and France in particular, cannot do without Africa, especially now that the global financial crisis caused by the corruption of the Western financial system is threatening the economic viability of many NATO countries.

Former French president Jacques Chirac acknowledged that "without Africa, France will slide down into the rank of a third [world] power. “Chirac’s predecessor François Mitterrand already prophesied in 1957 that "Without Africa, France will have no history in the 21st century."

Africa is critically important for France. One French scholar, Xavier Renou, suggests several reasons: maintaining an international status, independent of US and Chinese influences, securing a permanent access to strategic resources, and benefiting from a monopolistic situation. To attain these objectives and maintain its power over its former colonies, France has to pursue a global policy that is economic, political and cultural.

However, in the 21st century, Africa does not need the remnant frameworks of colonialism. Africa should turn its back on La Francophonie in particular.

France does not respect Africa. Former French president Nicholas Sarkozy went as far as insulting Africa, when in a speech in Dakar, the capital of Senegal, he said: "AFRICA HAS NO HISTORY" and "THE AFRICAN MAN HAS NOT FULLY ENTERED INTO HISTORY."

Some authors have seen France's traditional African policy as being equivalent to the US Monroe Doctrine. Though different in their purposes, both doctrines justify, mainly through historical and geographical arguments, the exclusive control by a nation over what they regard as their "private backyard" (arrière-cours).

This is reflected in a number of French expressions used to describe Francophone African countries, such as domaine réservé (private domain), chasse-gardée (exclusive hunting ground) and pré-carré (natural preserve), which prescribe the backyard as being "off limits" to other great powers.

That is why, the presence at the helm of France's former colonies of an independent, principled, and experienced leadership is regarded as an obstacle as such. The installation of weak, dependent and inexperienced pawns who can be guided along to deliver the country to Western powers on a platter is being pursued to this day.

Moreover, the "special relationship" that France seeks to build with African countries is far more focused on France's national interests than African ones.

If you look at the economic integration among countries that share the Communauté Financière d'Afrique franc as a common currency, you will notice that the French Treasury holds billions of dollars owned by the African states of the francophone nations of West and Central Africa in its own accounts.

The francophone states deposit the equivalent of 85 percent of their annual reserves in these accounts as a matter of post-colonial agreements, and have never been given an accounting of how much the French are holding on their behalf, in what have these funds been invested, and what profit or loss there have been.

In fact these countries require the permission of France before they sign any contract with China.

The way forward for Africa is to be united and to follow the South American model. South American countries are succeeding exactly because they have reached their own consensus.

In the past decade, for the first time in 500 years, South America has taken successful steps to free itself from Western domination.

The region has moved toward integration, and has begun to address some of the terrible internal problems of societies ruled by mostly Europeanized elites, tiny islands of extreme wealth in a sea of misery. Some nations have also rid themselves of US military bases and of IMF controls.

If Africa can follow a similar model, it can escape the constraints of colonialism, whether French, British, Portuguese, or US, and carve its own destiny.”

SOURCE: Global Times: October 22, 2012.

About Antoine R. Lokongo: The author is a native of the Democratic Republic of Congo, a journalist, and currently a PhD candidate at the Center for African Studies, Peking University.”

Additional Info. Now consider the following statements:




1) Kwame Nkrumah: The Years Abroad, 1935-1947 (Marika Sherwood)

2) The Life And Work Of Kwame Nkrumah (Kwame Arhin)

3) History Has Vindicated Kwame Nkrumah (Rodney Worrell)

4) Third World To First World-By One Touch: Economic Repercussions Of The Overthrow of Dr. Kwame Nkrumah (Robert Woode)

5) Kwame Nkrumah: A Study Of His Intellectual Development In The United States 1935-45 (Carlos Nelson)

6) Kwame Nkrumah's Politico-Cultural Thought And Policies (Kwame Botwe-Asamoah)

7) The Political And Social Thought Of Kwame Nkrumah (Ama Biney)

8) Forward Ever. Kwame Nkrumah: A Biography (June Milne)

9) Kwame Nkrumah: The Conakry Years: His Life And Letters (June Milne)

10) Nkrumah And Ghana: The Dilemma Of Post-Colonial Power (Kofi Buenor Hadjor)

11) Black Star: A View Of The Life And Times Of Kwame Nkrumah (Basil Davidson)

12) Kwame Nkrumah: Vision And Tragedy (David Rooney)

13) Nkrumah And The Chiefs: Politics Of Chieftaincy In Ghana 1951-1960 (Richard Rathbone)

14) Nkrumah: Webster's Timeline History, 1909-2007 (Philip M. Parker)

15) Kwame Nkrumah: From Cradle To Grave (Timothy Bankole)

16) Nkrumah: Makers Of The 20th Century (David Birmingham)

17) Kwame Nkrumah: World Leaders Past and Present (Douglas Keller)

18) Great Black Leaders: Ancient And Modern (Ivan Van Sertima)

19) Kwame Nkrumah: A Case Study Of Religion And Politics In Ghana (Ebenezer Obiri Addo)

20) African Tightrope: My Two Years As Nkrumah's Chief Of Staff (Major-General H.T. Alexander)

21) A View Of Kwame Nkrumah 1909-1972 (Kwame Arhin)

22) Christianity, Islam And The Negro Race (Edward W. Blyden)

23) African Nationalism (Ndabaningi Sithole)

24) Pan-Africanism And South America: Emergence Of A Black Rebellion (Elisa L. Nascimento)

25) Africa And Unity: The Evolution Of Pan-Africanism (Vincent B. Thompson)

26) Tubal Uriah Butler Of Trinidad and Tobago Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana: The Road To Independence (Daurius Figueira)

27) Selected Speeches of Kwame Nkrumah (5 Volumes; Samuel Obeng)

28) The Spark: Times Behind Me From Kwame Nkrumah To Limann (Kofi Batsa)

29) Philosophy And Opinions Of Marcus Garvey (Amy Jacques-Garvey)

30) Dr. Kwame Nkrumah's Last Dream: Continental Government Of Africa (Joe-Fio N. Meyer)

31) Kwame Nkrumah And The Future Of Africa (John F. V. Phillips)

32) Kwame Nkrumah (Yuri Smertin)

33) Black Power: A Record Of Reactions In A Land Of Pathos (Richard Wright)

34) Pan-Africanism In The Diaspora: An Analysis Of Modern Afrocentric Political Movement (Ronald W. Walters)

35) The Ghana Young Pioneer Movement: A Youth Organization In The Kwame Nkrumah Era (M.N. Tetteh)

36) Kwame Nkrumah: A Case Study In Intercultural Leadership (Samuel E. Taylor)

37) In Search Of Enemies: A CIA Story (John Stockwell)

38) Kwame Nkrumah: The Political Kingdom In The Third World (David Rooney)

39) Uhuru Na Ujamaa: A Selection From Writings And Speeches, 1952-1965 (Julius Nyerere)

40) Kwame Nkrumah As I Knew Him (Genoveva Marais)

41) JFK: Ordeal In Africa (Richard Mahoney)

42) Pan-Africanism: A Short Political History (Colins Legum)

43) The Pan-African Movement: Ghana's Contributions (Kwesi Krafona)

44) Uhuru Na Ujoma: A Selection From Writings And Speeches, 1952-1965 (Julius Nyerere)

45) Kwame Nkrumah's Contributions To Pan-African Agency: An Afrocentric Analysis (Zizwe Poe)

46) W.E.B. Du Bois: The Fight For Equality And The American Century 1919-1963 (David Levering Lewis)

47) African Union: Pan-African Analytic Foundation (Kofi Kissi Dompere)

48) Polyrhythmicity: Foundations of African Philosophy (Kofi Kissi Dompere)

49) Nkrumah The Man: A Friend's Testimony (Genoveva Kanu)

50) Africentricity And African Nationalism (Kofi Kissi Dompere)

51) The Theory Of Categorial Conversion: Rational Foundations Of Nkrumahism (Kofi Kissi Dompere)

52) The Theory Of Philosophical Consciencism: Practice Foundations of Nkrumahism (Kofi Kissi Dompere)

53) Ghana's First Republic, 1960-1966: The Pursuit Of The Political Kingdom (Trevor Jones)

54) The History of Education In Ghana From The Earliest Times To The Declaration Of Independence (C.K. Graham)

55) Ghana: End Of An Illusion (Bob Fitch & Mary Oppenheimer)

56) Black Nationalism: A Search For An Identity (E.U. Essien-Udom)

57) General Histories of Africa: UNESCO (Volumes 1, 2, 7, 8)

58) Nkrumah's Consciencism: Its Relevance To Ghanaian Development (Adom C. Boateng)

59) Kwame Nkrumah: The Father Of African Nationalism (David Birmingham)

60) Politics In Ghana, 1946-1960 (Dennis Austin)

61) Volta: Man's Greatest Lake (James Moxon)

62) Volta River Project (David Hart)

63) Nkrumah's Ghana And East Africa: Pan-Africanism And African Interstate Relations (Opoku Agyeman)

64) Pan-Africanism And Its Detractors: A Response To Harvard's Race-Effacing Universalists (Opoku Agyeman)

65) By Nkrumah's Side: The Labor And The Wounds (Tawia Adamafio)

66) Reap The Whirlwind (Geoffrey Bing)

67) Pan-Africanism: The Idea And Movement, 1776-1963 (P.O. Esebebe)

68) Pan-Africanism And Nationalism In West Africa, 1900-1945 (Ayodede Langley)

69) The Pan-African Connection: From Slavery To Garvey And Beyond (Tony Martin)

70) Pan-Africanism (Edited by T.A. Raheem)

71) Pan-Africanism: An Annotated Bibliography (Michael W. Williams)

72) Black Scholar: Journal Of Black Studies And Research (The Pan-African Debate Edited By Robert Chrisman)

73) Kwame Nkrumah: The Anatomy Of An African Dictatorship (T.P. Omari)

74) The Gold Coast Revolution: The Struggle Of An African People From Slavery To Freedom (George Padmore)

75) How Britain Rules Africa (George Padmore)

76) Towards Nkrumahism (J.K. Tettegah)

77) Ghana's Foreign Policy 1957-1966 (W.S. Thompson)

78) Africa: The Politics Of Independence And Unity (Immanuel Wallerstein)

79) Development Economics In Action: A Study Of Economic Politics In Ghana (Tony Killick)

80) Kwame Nkrumah: Six Years In Exile, 1966-72 (A.B. Assensoh)

81) Staying Power: Ghana's Political Economy, 1950-1990 (Douglas Rimmer)

82) The Quills Of The Porcupine: Asante Nationalism In An Emergent Ghana (Jean Marie Allman)

83) Nationalism And Economic Development In Ghana (R. Genoud)

84) Africa Since 1940: The Past Of The Present (Frederick Cooper)

85) Africa Since Independence (Paul Nugent)

86) Ideology And Development In Africa (Crawford Young)

87) American Africans In Ghana: Black Expatriates And The Civil Rights (Kevin K. Gaines)

88) African Socialism (William H. Friedland & Carl G. Rosberg)

89) Ghana In Transition (David E. Apter)

90) The Regime Change Of Kwame Nkrumah: Epic Heroism In Africa And The Diaspora (Ahmad Rahman)

91) Kwame Nkrumah: The Greatest African (Emanuel B. Ocran)

92) West Africans In Britain: 1900-1960 Nationalism, Pan-Africanism And Communism (Hakim Adi)

93) Pan-Africanism From Within (Ras Mokonnen)

94) The 1945 Manchester Pan-Africanism Congress (Hakim Adi & Marika Sherwood)

95) The Pan-African Movement: A History Of Pan-Africanism In America, Europe, And Africa (Imanuel Geiss)

96) Nationalism In Colonial Africa (Thomas Hodgkin)

97) Ghana: British Documents On The End Of The Empire (R. Rathbone, S.R. Ashton, D.J. Murray)

98) Joe Appiah: The Autobiography (Enid M. Appiah)

99) My Odyssey: An Autobiography (Nnamdi Azikiwe)

100) Private Secretary: Female Gold Coast (Erica Powell)

We shall return…