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Business News of Thursday, 30 June 2011

Source: Jantuah Collins

KNUST Students Manufacture Clinker, Portland cement Locally

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Three students at the ceramics section of Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, KNUST-Kumasi, under the supervision of Dr. P.S. Kwawukume have finally come out with manufactured Portland cement as part of their final year research for the award of Bachelor of Industrial Art (Ceramics) degree honours: Alorti Mawuko, Boadu Opoku Samuel and Jantuah Akwasi Collins. Clinker, a major component in cement manufacturing. Portland cement is the name given to a cement obtained by intimately mixing together calcareous and argillaceous, or other silica, alumina, and iron oxide-bearing materials, burning them at a clinkering temperature, and grinding the resulting clinker. The use of Portland cement and other cements for housing construction has increased rapidly due to accelerated infrastructure development by the government, estate developers and individuals. Housing has become very expensive and scares. Therefore, it is very important to produce and use durable local Portland cement materials as in order to reduce the cost of housing in Ghana. It is of this view that, the researchers researched into Portland cement manufacturing using solely local raw materials. This report presents a detailed description (refer: COLLEGE OF ART LIBRARY and CERAMICS SECTION, KNUST, for further reading) of solely local Portland cement manufacturing which can be used to reduce the nation housing and infrastructure deficit. There are abundant local raw materials in Ghana which could be explored, harnessed in order to increase the production of cement. It is of this view that the project seeks to produce cement clinker to support the cement industry. Furthermore, the researchers were determined to attaining the cement clinker at a low temperature of 11800C -12000C. The report examines the exploration of limestone/seashells and clay (Afari Clay, Mfensi Clay, Adedome clay and Laterite) in cement clinker production at a temperature of 11800C. The project did not only seek to produce cement clinker but process the clinker, batch and bag cement - to produce cement mini-blocks and fixing tiles . Above all, since achieving these processes under very low temperature was the hallmark of the project, limestone and Afari clay which contained lime (upon calcination - proves cementitious) and more ferric oxide (act as fluxes – lowering firing temperature) were respectively used. The project explored the use of Limestone, Seashells, clays (Laterite clay, Adedome clay, Afari Clay, Mfensi Clay, kaolinites clay) in the manufacture of the cement clinker. More so, the processes: crushing, grinding, pulverizing and ball-milling were explored in the production of the cement clinker. The cement produced out of the clinker made, proved to resist abrasion after a week by rubbing. Mini-blocks molded and soaked for one month also proved to be solid, strong and resist abrasion. The average water absorption test for one mouth was 1.051%. The project unraveled all the various locations and deposits of all cementitious local raw materials in Ghana. The result of the feasible cement project, if given due attention will move mother Ghana a step ahead. Therefore, all should come on board, especially, the state, estate developers, the private sector and individuals to support this viable course. Above all, chemical analysis such as X-RAY DIFFRACTION ANALYSIS ON CEMENT by: Professor Momade Engineering Department – KNUST and X-RAY FLUORESCENCE ANALYSIS ON CEMENT by: GEOLOGICAL SURVEY DEPARTMENT (ATTN: Mr. ASARE, Analysis by: EMMANUEL J. EFFUM, senior technical officer) was conducted respectively.

KEYWORDS: Portland, Cement, Raw Materials, Processing and Manufacturing, Housing and Population.


Ghana abounds in a lot of Ceramic Raw Materials situated all over the country such as clay, oyster shells, limestone, feldspar, silica and many more which is an advantage for us to process into useful products.
There is discovery lately of limestone in commercial quantity in the Northern Region of Ghana; Oterkpolu in the Eastern Region of Ghana. Other raw materials such as Feldspar found in Moree, Silica at Atuabo, Oyster shells at Battor in the Volta region of Ghana.
The on-going construction of the Bui-Hydro Electric Dam and other initiatives by private investors as well as the West Africa Gas Pipe line, Oil and Gas discovery Project which is to boost the generation of energy to uplift the low levels of electricity and gas supply in the country is a beacon of hope as a nation and as private hands to process our own cement clinker using our locally raw materials.


Although the use of cements (both hydraulic and non-hydraulic) goes back many thousands of years (to ancient Egyptian times at least), the first occurrence of "portland cement" came about in the 19th century. In 1824, Joseph Aspdin, a Leeds mason took out a patent on a hydraulic cement that he coined "Portland" cement (Mindess and Young, 1981). Since then, the name "portland cement" has stuck and is written in all lower case because it is now recognized as a trade name for a type of material and not a specific reference to Portland, England.
Portland, England Limestone at the
Portland Bill near Weymouth

Today, portland cement is the most widely used building material in the world with about 1.56 billion tonnes produced each year. Annual global production of portland cement concrete hovers around 3.8 million cubic meters (5 billion cubic yards) per year (Cement Association of Canada, 2001).


In the most general sense of the word, cement is a binder, a substance that sets and hardens independently, and can bind other materials together.
Cement used in construction is characterized as hydraulic or non-hydraulic. Hydraulic cements (e.g. Portland cement) harden because of hydration. Chemical reactions occur independently of the mixture's water content; they can harden even underwater or when constantly exposed to wet weather. The chemical reaction that results when the anhydrous cement powder is mixed with water produces hydrates that are not water-soluble.
Non-hydraulic cements (e.g. lime and gypsum plaster) must be kept dry in order to retain its strength.

Ordinary Portland Cement

Portland cement is the name given to a cement obtained by intimately mixing together calcareous and argillaceous, or other silica, alumina, and iron oxide-bearing materials, burning them at a clinkering temperature, and grinding the resulting clinker (Neville and Brooks, 1987).

Portland cement is the chief ingredient in cement paste - the binding agent in Portland Cement Concrete (PCC). It is a hydraulic cement that, when combined with water, hardens into a solid mass. Interspersed in an aggregate matrix it forms PCC (Portland Cement Concrete). As a material, Portland cement has been used for well over 175 years and, from an empirical perspective, its behavior is well-understood Chemically, however, Portland cement is a complex substance whose mechanisms and interactions have yet to be fully defined.

Materials for Clinker Manufacturing at KNUST

BALL CLAY, LATERITE, KOALIN, SILICA, LIMESTONE, SEA SHELLS, GYPSUM, WHITING, LIME FELDSPER (anorthite), FLUXES (of an alkaline nature e.g. sodium, potassium, lithium, calcium, iron, titanium,) etc.

CLAY (Al2O3.2SiO2.2H2O)
Clay Is an anhydrous alumino silicate. Its chemical formula is Al2O3.2SiO2.2H2O in its pure state. Alumino-silicate is a product of the decomposition of granite rock. It is a material when mixed with water becomes plastic, can be shaped to desired size, hardened when dried, and becomes permanently hard when fired. 75% of the earth's crust is made of ALUMINA and SILICA, two of the major constituents of alumino-silicate. Granite decomposes into FELDSPAR, which is composed of ALUMINA, SILICA, and FLUXES (of an alkaline nature e.g. sodium, potassium, lithium, calcium).
Ball Clay
For the purpose of this study, secondary clays such as Afari clay, Mfensi clay, laterite clay all in the Ashanti region, Adedome clay in the Volta region, Winniba kaolin in the Central region, Telekubukaso kaolin in the Western region were considered.

Adedome clay contains high percentage of iron oxide (ferrous Oxide) and among other impurities (fluxes) such as magnesium, Manganese, Titanium oxide etc.
Afari clay contains high percentage of iron oxide (ferrous Oxide) and among other impurities (fluxes) such as magnesium, Manganese, Titanium oxide etc.
Mfensi clay as compared to Afari clay, contain less ferrous oxide (FeO3) among other impurities stated for Afari Clay.

Laterite This is a red earth (Ntwuma, in Akan). This contains high amount of iron oxide and other minerals than any type of clay stated here and at times contains mica. There is also laterite with black colour, however, not considered in this study. This type of cement manufactured from this type of clay is only design for the burnt brick and, brick and tile industries for construction, and coloured mini pavement blocks. Even though, it can be used for normal constructional works just like the ordinary Portland cement (ash colour).
Kaolin Is a white type of clay; it is basically selected for the manufacturing of white Portland cement.

Limestone (calcium carbonate, CaCO3)
Limestone Is a type of sedimentary rock containing chiefly calcium silicate and other minor minerals such as sulphur, magnesium, carbon etc. It has a formula Ca2SiO4 and when this mineral is calcined it breaks the chain to calcium oxide (CaO), lime and silicon oxide (SiO2).
Limestone deposits in Ghana
Northern Region: Buipe, Bong-Da, Daboya. Eastern Region: Oterkpolu, Anyaboni, Asuboni, Mem. Western Region: Nauli. Volta Region: Fo River. Ashanti Region: Ejura scrap, Akubi. Brong Ahafo region: Kintampo, Prang.
Oterkpolu mineralogical analysis of limestone

Sea Shells (CaCO3)
Seashells, this is an outer cover of sea foods called mulusc which is chiefly composed of calcium carbonate (CaCO3), Similar to limestone, the resultant mineral after calcining is calcium oxide (CaO). This kind of material is selected basically for it purity of whiteness and therefore fabricated with other kaolinites clays to produce white Portland cement.
Gypsum (CaSO4•2H2O)
Is a rock, it is used to “flash set” of cement when the hydration is too fast.


Limestone and Sea shells (un-calcined)


Test to evaluate the authenticity of the Limestone and the Seashells was carried out to detect the presence of having the mineral content, CaCO3, using red vinegar (dilute hydrochloric acid), rapid perspiration shows the reaction of the calcium carbonate presence.
i. Washing and drying: the limestone and seashells, after testing samples and results confirmed, were washed and dried.
ii. Crushing: The limestone was crushed into pieces using the jaw crusher and same was done to the seashells.
iii. Grinding: The crushed limestone as well as the seashells was further reduced to smaller and fine particles.
iv. Sieving: 40-80 mesh sieves were used to further reduce the grounded limestone and seashells into fine powder respectively.
Limestone and Seashells Calcined
i. Limestone as well as seashells (after it has been tested, washed and dried) was calcined in the electric kiln to a temperature of 600 degrees Celsius. This was done to eliminate impurities such as carbon, sulphur etc. and to render these materials in its purest form.
ii. Crushing/grinding/ sieving and storage.


Clinker manufacturing, being the principal material for cement production, is a dark grey nodular material made by heating ground limestone and at a temperature of about 1400oC-1580oC. It can also be said as lumps or nodules, usually 3-25 mm in diameter, produced by sintering limestone and alumino-silicate (clay) during the cement kiln stage.
Temperature Formation of KNUST Cement

Temperature formation of our clinker manufacturing does not go high level, as of the foreign clinker 1400oC-1580oC. With the knowledge of vitreous state and phase equilibrium we are much nature and relevant in selection and character study of materials in all ceramics field.
It is the selection of materials that has lead us to the low temperature clinker manufacturing around 1180-1250.

Below is the foreign statistics of various phases shown in particular cement one want to achieve.

1. Belite: (di-calcium silicate C2S 15-30%) 1150oC-1200oC
2. Alite: (tri-calciumsilicate C3S 45-60%) 1200oC-1300oC
3. Tricalcium aluminate: (tri-calcium Aluminate C3A 6-12%) 1350oC-1450oC
4. Tetracalcium aluminoferrite: (tetra-calcium Aluminoferrite C4AF 6-8%) 1350oC-1450oC

The Chart Below Shows the Production Processes for the Cement Manufacturing:

Chemical Analysis of Cement
X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis on Cement by

Research Protocols
Cement clinker as produced generally is formed with the following Oxide compositions:

(A) Portland Cement Phases (B) Main Oxides Component
C3S 45- 60 % Calcium Oxide (CaO) 62.06 %
C2S 15-30 % Silica (SiO2) 21.24%
C3A 6- 12 % Alumina (Al2O3) 4.8 %
C4AF 6-8 % Ferric oxide (Fe2O3) 2.5 %
Gypsum (CaSO4) 5 %
Alkaline 1 %
Magnesium 1.5-3.5%

The above group of oxides is fired to 1180oc and or above to form the cement clinker.

Based on the above compositions and other literature studied, the researchers realized that the foreign materials used for the cement clinker production are more often in their purest state, i.e., they contain less impurities or fluxes. Nonetheless, requires high temperature to establish the phases: C3S, C2S, C3A, C4AF for the clinker formation.
The researchers upon further knowledge in the comparison of chemical analysis of foreign and local raw materials acknowledged that, the local raw materials possess many impurities. Impurities like fluxes lower the firing temperature of these materials. Hence, it of this knowledge, that the researchers resolved that cement clinker phases can be produced or established at a lower temperature.

Chemical analysis of some local raw materials for the study:

Element Afari clay (%) Mfensi clay (%) Laterite
SiO2 48.88 58.62
Al2O3 26.56 23.44
Fe2O3 6.66 3.63
CaO 0.24 0.14
MnO 0.01 0.02
MgO 1.61 1.41
Na2O 1.73 2.06
K2O 0.13 1.28
TiO2 0.79 0.9
P2O5 0.06 0.13
SO3 0.17 0.18
LOI 12 8
Total 98.84 99.82

Triaxial Diagram

Showing limestone/seashells and clay(s) recipe compositions.

Clinker Production

Nodules Preparation and Testing
Weigh batched recipes and dry mixed by mixer. Wet mixed batch recipes with 50ml of water and form wet mixed recipe in pebble-like variable sizes by hand or nodular, dry formed nodules in the sun for a week to take off physical water. Nodules were placed in terracotta saucers according to the batch recipe, loaded and fired in an electric kiln to 1180OC. Unpack the fired nodules, Crush clinker to reduce the particles further with laboratory ball miller and test to see the flash set. If the setting time is too fast, then we retard the setting time with a calculated amount of Gypsum.

Around 118O oC this diagram is shown at the chemical analyses made in Engineering Department, KNUST as compared to the same readings for Ghacem cement.
X-Ray Diffraction Analysis on Cement by:
Professor Momade Engineering Department - KNUST

X-Ray Diffraction Analysis by Prof Momade (Engineering Department KNUST) on the samples recipes chosen.

X-Ray Diffraction Analysis by Prof Momade (Engineering Department KNUST) on GHACEM - Portland Cement.

Research Products
37 samples of clinker recipes were prepared. Among these recipes tested, all of them found working. The study lead us to most 16 recipe which is efficient and compactible after sampled were fashion into mini blocks. Among the further 16 recipes studied, 5 was analyzed chemically to prove the fairly idea about the formation in X- Ray Diffraction( XRD ) at the Engineering Department- KNUST and X-Ray Florescence( XRF) at the Mineralogical surveying Department –Accra.
Now for the production of the Super Portland cement, the research team has come out with these research products:
1. Super Portland cement
2. Read super Portland cement
3. White super Portland cement
4. Ash or white Tile super cement.

Testing Cement (Block Tablets Formation)
Ratio of cement to sand was used to form mini block tablet for laboratory tests. The same sample of Ghacem Portland cement was taken as our protocols.
Weighing Sand And Cement Mixing Sand And Cement

Molding Mini-Cement Blocks

Binding Broken Tiles with Cement

Observations on Cement Test.
1. It was found out that between 8-15 minutes the formed mini blocks began to set.
2. Concerning the bonding of the tiles and the insulating bricks, the setting time was quick as compared to the mini blocks, because of the insulation brick and tile, sacking water from the mortar.
3. The mortar caused burning sensation and abrasions to the hand, also the hand got very dried after washing. This is because of the reaction of the hydration nature of the Tricalcium silicate (C3S) and the caustic nature of cement.
4. 24 hours later, the blocks, bonded tiles and the bonded insulating bricks were very hard with high abrasion resistance by rubbing.
5. Absorption Tests / Porosity Tests of Cement were carried out on the mini blocks moulded for 24 hours. The mini-blocks were very hard with high abrasion resistance by rubbing.
6. The above point was repeated but this time for 1 week, 2 weeks, 3 weeks, and 1 month respectively and the same results were realised as in point (5 above)

Absorption Test / Porosity Test of Cement
Code Dried Weight
(X) Soaked Weight
(24 hours)
(Y) Absorption
(Y-X ) Absorption Rate (%)
y-x x 100
1. D6 186.5g 209g 22.5g 12.064
2. D3 248.5g 283g 34.5g 13.883
3. D5 309.5g 348g 38.5g 12.439
4. C9 146.7g 164.7 18g 12.270
5. C5 306g 339.5g 33.5g 10.948
6. C1 269g 300.5g 31.5g 11.710
7. C8 244.5g 274.2g 29.7g 12.147
8. C3 277.5g 308.5g 31g 11.171
9. C7 261.2g 304.5g 43.3g 16.577
10. B8 304g 342.5g 38.5g 12.664
11. B7 300g 344.5g 44.5g 14.833
12. B9 297.5g 345g 47.5g 15.966
13. B3 283g 316g 33g 11.661
14. A9 263.5g 296.4g 33g 12.524
15. A4 284.5g 323.5g 39g 13.708
16. A5 276g 312.9g 36.9 13.370
Total 4257.9g
Average 266.119 300.794 34.681 0.8145

Code Dried Weight
(X) Soaked Weight
(1 Week)
(Y) Absorption
(Y-X ) Absorption Rate (%)
y-x x 100
1. D6 186.5g 213.5g 27g 14.477
2. D3 248.5g 287.6g 39.1g 15.734
3. D5 309.5g 351g 41.5g 13.409
4. C9 146.7g 167.5g 20.8g 14.179
5. C5 306g 344g 38g 12.418
6. C1 269g 304g 35g 13.011
7. C8 244.5g 277.3g 32.8 13.415
8. C3 277.5g 316.5g 39g 14.054
9. C7 261.2g 310.5g 49.3 18.874
10. B8 304g 350g 46g 15.132
11. B7 300g 350g 50g 16.667
12. B9 297.5g 350g 52.5g 17.647
13. B3 283g 317.8g 34.8g 12.297
14. A9 263.5g 300.5g 37g 14.042
15. A4 284.5g 329g 44.5g 15.641
16. A5 276g 318.4g 42.4 15.362
Total 4257.9g
4887.6 629.7 14.789
Average 266.119 305.475 39.356 0.924

Code Dried Weight
(X) Soaked Weight
(2 Weeks)
(Y) Absorption
(Y-X ) Absorption Rate (%)
y-x x 100
1. D6 186.5g 213.7g 27.2g 14.584
2. D3 248.5g 288.5g 40g 16.0966
3. D5 309.5g 352.1g 42.6g 13.764
4. C9 146.7G 167g 20.3g 13.838
5. C5 306g 344.7g 38.7g 12.647
6. C1 269g 303.5g 34.5 12.825
7. C8 244.5g 278g 33.5g 13.701
8. C3 277.5g 318g 40.5 14.595
9. C7 261.2g 312g 50.8g 19.449
10. B8 304g 352.3g 48.3g 15.888
11. B7 300g 351g 51g 17
12. B9 297.5g 350.3g 52.8g 17.748
13. B3 283g 320g 37g 13.074
14. A9 263.5g 303g 39.5g 14.991
15. A4 284.5g 329.2g 44.7g 15.712
16. A5 276g 319g 43g 15.580
Total 4257.9g
4902.3 644.4 15.135
Average 266.119 306.394 40.275 0.946

Code Dried Weight
(X) Soaked Weight
(3 Weeks)
(Y) Absorption
(Y-X ) Absorption Rate (%)
y-x x 100
1. D6 186.5g 213.6g 27.1g 14.530
2. D3 248.5g 289.5g 41g 16.499
3. D5 309.5g 352.5g 43g 13.893
4. C9 146.7G 169g 22.3g 15.201
5. C5 306g 344.5g 38.5g 12.582
6. C1 269g 304.5g 35.5g 13.197
7. C8 244.5g 278g 33.5g 13.701
8. C3 277.5g 318.5g 41g 14.775
9. C7 261.2g 311.5g 50.3g 19.257
10. B8 304g 352.5g 48.5g 15.954
11. B7 300g 351.5g 51.5g 17.167
12. B9 297.5g 344.6g 47.1g 15.832
13. B3 283g 319.8g 36.8g 13.004
14. A9 263.5g 303g 39.5 14.991
15. A4 284.5g 330g 45.5 15.993
16. A5 276g 320g 44g 15.942
Total 4257.9g
4903 645.1 15.151
Average 266.119 306.438 40.319 0.947

Code Dried Weight
(X) Soaked Weight
(1 Month)
(Y) Absorption
(Y-X ) Absorption Rate (%)
y-x x 100
1. D6 186.5g 222g 35.5g 19.035
2. D3 248.5g 293.6g 45.1g 18.149
3. D5 309.5g 354.7g 45.2 14.604
4. C9 146.7g 175.9g 29.2 19.905
5. C5 306g 350.5g 44.5 14.542
6. C1 269g 308.4g 39.4 14.647
7. C8 244.5g 281.4g 36.9 15.092
8. C3 277.5g 322.6g 45.1g 16.252
9. C7 261.2g 316.5g 55.3g 21.172
10. B8 304g 357.2g 53.2g 17.5
11. B7 300g 356.5g 56.5g 18.833
12. B9 297.5g 350.5g 53g 17.815
13. B3 283g 322.8g 39.8g 14.064
14. A9 263.5g 303.5g 40g 15.180
15. A4 284.5g 334.5g 50g 17.575
16. A5 276g 323.3g 47.3g 17.138
Total 4257.9g
4973.9 716 16.816
Average 266.119 310.869 44.75 1.051


Cement, for years has eluded many dreams and hopes of Ghanaians of it manufacturing, using our known raw materials and onward processing into cements (OPCs). The inception of Portland cements and its manufacturing has been a process of crushing imported clinker from India (Diamond cement), Norway (Ghacem Cement Company) and infusing limestone as well as Gypsum to control setting. This has been the story of Ghana over the years when the Norwegians took over Cement manufacturing and hence the formation of Ghana Cement Manufacturing (GHACEM) and lately Diamond Cement Factory who are into the processing of ordinary Portland cements (OPCs).
This inability has always boiled down to these factors:
• The low levels of energy in Ghana (gas, electricity etc.)
• Research
• The know-how in Clinker manufacturing
• Capital
• Processing (Technology and equipment)
As a nation over the years, we have failed to come up in this direction, although the needed raw materials for clinker- processing are all available in the country. It is a fact that every nation’s infrastructural development becomes the backbone for growth (Hospitals, schools, roads, Houses etc.)

Over the years, clinker manufacturing in Europe and elsewhere has been the use of high levels of energy between 1300oC-1580oC. This phenomenon is scientifically true, but has limitations from country to country due to the geological or mineralogical constitutes of their raw material compositions.
The fact being that, their innovations in energy sectors is higher and has made low cost for energy usage and for industrialization. Even though, they could have impregnated some fluxes to their materials to beat down the temperature of 1300oC-1580oC to a lower temperature, it has not been a worry to them.
In the case of Ghana, raw materials such as ball clay, shells, kaolin, silica (sand), feldspar, gypsum, limestone, talc, dolomite, anortite etc. have high levels of fluxes. Research conducted shows that clinker manufacturing can be done using our raw materials at a lower temperature between 1180oC-1250oC due to the presence of high levels of fluxes (oxides) or contaminations.
Even at the present state of our energy levels, clinker manufacturing is viable and further boosted with the discovery of oil and gas, construction of the Bui dam, West Africa gas pipe line and, Togbui Afede and Japanese energy partnership, will give Ghana a good smile to boost it clinker manufacturing and even supply the west Africa countries for foreign exchange. This strategy is a great vision for government and the private sector to shape the economy.

Researches over the years; have not been given the necessary attention. The existence of Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) and other research centers have done great research findings and that could have been the focal point for the nation’s development.
Tertiary education for that matter SECIENCE and TECHNOLOGY research should have propelled in this direction but that is not so. Student’s projects over the years have only met the degree giving requirement and after which they are left unattended to. Students projects have the potential, like ours, being a national projects.
Governments over the years have failed woefully in projecting the national interest regards to special projects for national growth. Even if there has been, along the way it has been neglected due to financial and logistical support for such projects. If we are to enumerate the bottle necks, short comings and challenges; research centers and the need for government, co-operate bodies, NGOs etc. to support the research base of the nation.
What we hope to see is for government ministries, co-operate bodies, NGOs, universities to develop a very big research base. There should be a concerted effort aimed at problem solving research. This would make technology available and affordable.

The know-how in Clinker manufacturing
It is obvious that, if this research is given the necessary boost which ends up with more inventions, then expertise and for that matter technology becomes cheaper and the economy would benefits. By this, technology becomes quite easy and affordable and available. Now that God has been favorable to us in the pursuits of this research researcher would urge government, private hands to salvage this vision. We would like to see Ghana making its own clinker and processing into OPCs. Attention must be given to research on building materials since the government want to remove the housing problems of this lovely nation of ours.
Others kinds and types of cement can also be researched to build more dams, strong bridges and engineering works, and so on.
Records indicate that in the year 2003, Ghana imported about two million metric tonnes of clinker at the cost of 100 million dollars for the production of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC).
By our research, clinker production in the country stands giantly to be self-reliant in the infrastructural base of this country.
Cement manufacturing is a huge venture and needs joint hands to support. As a multi-million venture the researchers and government can blend a good economic and stabilized company which will reduce the burden of habitat for humanity in this country. Venture capitalist and business angels are also a good source of capitalization for the start of this cement manufacturing.

Processing (Technology and Equipment)
The processing of raw materials for the clinker manufacturing is important. It is estimated by the researchers that, by the mean of getting the necessary capital and modern technological equipment and machines, cement should not cost above 8 cedis per bag of cement. This is the idea to help the government of Ghana to reduce housing and infrastructural deficit in the country. Every country can develop based on their infrastructural movement.


Demand for and Supply of Housing in Ghana
Earth and cement-based products are the most widely used materials for housing construction in Ghana. Whilst earth buildings predominate in the rural areas (about 95%). Cement is mostly used in the cities and urban areas. Source: Ghana statistical survey, 2002.
‘‘Ghana has one million housing deficit – Veep-Ghana
Accra, Sept. 16, 2009 GNA - Government is to formulate a strategy on the real estate sector to tackle a national housing deficit estimated at about one million units, Vice President John Dramani Mahama announced on Wednesday.’’ Source: Ghana News Agency
Ghana has 60% housing deficit
Thursday, October 8, 2009 7:07am Ghana housing deficit stands at 60%, the Vice President, John Mahama has said. Available statistics indicate that there is an acute shortage of over 400,000 units of houses nationwide while the supply capacity nationally is estimated to be 42,000 units per annum. To cater for the shortfall it is estimated that annual delivery should be approximately 120,000 housing units.“This means that approximately 60 per cent of our national requirement remains unsatisfied,” Vice President Mahama said’’]. Source: Ghana News Agency

‘‘Ghana's housing deficit stands at one million - Mr Abongo
Accra, Nov. 28, 2009 GNA - Ghana's housing deficit currently stands at one million, Mr Robert Abongo, Minister of Water Resources, Works and Housing on Saturday said.
He said on the average, the annual national housing requirement is 140,000 units with a supply of about 45,000 units per annum Mr Abongo said this at a dinner and awards night organized by Koans Building Solutions, a private construction company’’ Source: Ghana News Agency


The current findings add to a growing body of literature on Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) production.
The study has found out that generally cement production is basically the composition of silica, alumina, iron oxide and some trace elements such as magnesium , calcium, alkali (K2O, NA2O ) which go through firing etc.
Simply put, cement production comprises of two key ingredients
a.) Cementitious Material (CaO)
b.) A binder (Clay)).
Therefore, limestone, seashells and clay being such materials, can completely compose cement.
The project has also shown that, cementitious materials and a binder can be sourced from Oterkpolu and other deposits, Afari (Kumasi) and any clay sites in Ghana or Africa that have the same or equal respective mineral composition to produce cement thereby supporting the building industries.
The project has shown that cement production can be achieved from limestone and clay at a considerable very low temperature at 1180OC. Again, it has shown that literatures on considerable temperature at which cement production is produced can still be lowered provided there is more iron content in the composition.
The project, having been successful, would help the researchers, government, and individuals to move into estate development to foster the reduction of the housing deficit in the country. Below are excerpts from articles on housing deficit of which support the idea stated:
Other advantages which the project will help achieved are:
• Increase in the level of cement production in the country.
• Creating employment or viable ways of employing experts and individuals.
• Realization of other forms of cement production such as WHITE, COLOURD, TILE CEMENT and other related ones like SURPHATE CEMENT for dams and bridges in water bodies and so on.
• This project could be replicated in all the ten regions of Ghana.
• This project would also solve the housing deficit since cement would readily be available and affordable.
• This would also ensure the optimum utilization of the raw materials in the various part of the country.
• Retaining or reducing the huge amount of money for clinker importations.
• We can also earn some foreign exchange by means of exporting to the neighboring countries.
• Lies about Energy as a hindrance to production will be ratified.
• Energy released for the manufacturing of clinker will reduce carbon fusion as a problem of global warming and the ozone layer depletion.
• Low cost of cement, half price 8 cedis as oppose to the Ghacem and Diamond cement 13 cedis.





6. ;
19. -calcium.htm
20. -limestone.htm
21. -feldspar.htm
23. www.clays .org
31. V.S. Ramchandran, etal, 2002 ‘‘Handbook Of Thermal Analysis Of Construction Materials’’ ( p35-136; 174-345). William Andrew Publishing Norwich, New York, U.S.A..

• All media house
• Precious Minerals Marketing Company Ltd
• Ministry of Lands and National Resources
• Minerals Commission
• Geological Survey Department
• Inspectorate Division, Minerals Commission

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